Alternative energy sources like solar, wind, thermal, ocean, geothermal, thermonuclear, hydrogen etc., are being considered as possible sources of energy to meet the growing demand. However, none of these energy sources except hydrogen has all the desirable qualities to replace petroleum and natural gas. For example, some are only intermittently available; others are available away from the consumption centers and cannot be used as fuel for transportation. Therefore, out of the above alternative energy sources, hydrogen is considered the best option, which could form the link between the new energy sources and the user. Hydrogen is the clean fuel and when used as a fuel, produces only water. In the hydrogen energy system, it is envisaged that hydrogen will be produced from non-fossil energy sources, and will be used in every applications where fossil fuels are used today. Over the last decade there have been increasing research efforts to investigate the various aspects of the hydrogen energy systems like production, storage and transport and its applications. Generation of hydrogen via electrolysis is a well-known and established technology. There are two main types of electrolyser [Alkaline and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)] and both are well proven and long-lived. Electrolysis has been traditionally based on an alkaline technology, but Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysers are now coming to the forefront. However, due to the high cost of both electricity and material, only a small proportion (4 -5%) of the worldwide hydrogen production comes from electrolysis. Yet electrolyser costs are expected to drop within the few years as a consequence of standardization, mass-production, and a greater competitiveness. The demand for clean-produced hydrogen and its storage potential spell enormous possibilities for renewable electrolysis in the future. Even non-renewable electrolysis is bound to play an important role in the short-term as a source of moderate amounts of hydrogen for small fuelling stations and domestic applications. In future low-carbon economics, electrolyser technology could provide a central solution to meeting both the power management needs of the electricity sector and the needs of the transport and industrial sectors for low/zero carbon fuels. Electrolytic hydrogen could thereby displace large proportions of non-electricity fuel consumption. Hence, the new market potential for electrolyser dwarfs the existing market potential and on a global scale it is truly vast. In this talk some of the important and recent developments in the electrochemical alternatives with newer materials for hydrogen generation are discussed. The talk also covers hydrogen based technologies developed at CSIR-CECRI.